Pinamalayan is a first-class municipality located in the eastern part of the province of Oriental Mindoro, Mindoro Island. It is approximately 71 kilometers away from the provincial capital of Calapan City and 254 kilometers away from the national capital of Manila. Based on the certification by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), it has an estimated total land area of 28,226 hectares comprised by 37 barangays. These are further classified into eight urban barangays and 29 rural barangays. Furthermore, there are ten coastal barangays. Among all the barangays, Sabang has the largest land area at 8,799.20 hectares while Zone IV has the smallest land area at 10.65 hectares.
According to the PSA, Pinamalayan has a total population of 86,172 with a growth rate of 1.03 percent. Total number of households is at 19,276 based on the CBMS Survey (2014). It is the most populous municipality after Calapan City and Naujan. Out of the 37 barangays, Marfrancisco is the most populous followed by Papandayan which is expected to be the most populous barangay in the coming years. The level of urbanization increased in the last 25 years. In 2000, 2010, and 2015, the urbanization level of Pinamalayan was higher than the provincial level..
The existing land use shows that about 16,904.2 hectares or 60% of the municipal land is utilized for various crops and fruit-bearing trees (Map Q). The top agricultural crops in terms of area utilization and annual production are as follows: rice, banana, coconut, fruit trees, and vegetables.
Over the course of history, agriculture is an important economic activity in the municipality. Furthermore, its crops have a product market that reaches up to the neighboring provinces of Cavite, Batangas, Marinduque and Romblon, as well as the national capital of Manila. It also has a market in the Visayas, particularly in Iloilo. The main cash crop is rice, for it has the greatest annual production and largest generated income.
As summarized in the succeeding graphs, the general trend of area utilization (Figure EC-1), annual production (Figure EC-2), and annual generated values (Figure EC-3) have slightly increased in the years 2014 to 2015. However, all of the production volumes and generated revenues of major crops for the year 2016 have decreased drastically, compared to that of the 2014 and 2015 values.
Furthermore, it is notable that the data on bananas were both of zero yield (Figure EC-2) and revenue in 2016 (Figure EC-3). This trend has been attributed to the heavy damages brought upon by Typhoon Nona which struck Pinamalayan in the latter part of 2015. Hence, the decrease in overall agricultural productivity in the following year of 2016 was observed. For the complete set of data, refer to Appendices D, E, and F.
According to interviews, one of the crops that has potential to be developed is the abaca or Manila Hemp. This plant is mostly grown on the higher elevations of the municipality but the trend cannot be observed because of the lack of data for the years 2014 to 2015. In 2016, the area utilized for such crop was at 86 hectares, with a yield of 15 metric tons and more than one million pesos in revenues.
Looking into the historical data for both agricultural land utilization and volume of production, an inverted relationship was observed between 2014 and 2015. While the total land utilization increased by 0.01 percent, production decreased by 7.42 percent (Table EC-1). Between 2015 to 2016, however, the decrease in agricultural areas and production became even more evident for there was a 7.79 percent decrease in area utilization and 35.66 percent decrease in production (Table EC-2). The results for each major crop is also shown in the said tables.
|Major Crops||Area (hectares)||Volume of Production (MT)|
|Major Crops||Area (hectares)||Volume of Production (MT)|
In 2014 and 2015, the greatest productivity per area were that of vegetables at 14.52 and 8.01 metric tons per hectare, respectively. While in 2016, rice had the most yield per area at 4.64 metric tons per hectare (Table EC-3).
But as displayed by Figure EC-4, the yield of coconuts and rice for the past three years has almost remained constant, while the yield for bananas, fruit trees, and vegetables have sharply decreased. All of these values, however, are showing declining productivity.
Increasing the land utilized for agriculture alone may not be a good strategy to increase overall agricultural production. Since typhoon occurrence is a major factor that can influence the level of production, it might be better to consider shifting cropping patterns combined with expanding land area for agricultural utilization. Since climate change is also expected to bring more hostile conditions for farming, sustainable production practices should also be supported, studied, and promoted. Availability of post-harvest facilities is of course given.
As of the 2014 CBMS, 20 percent of households are engaged in agriculture. Barangay Sabang has the largest percent share of households at 78 percent while the least percent share of households comes from barangays Wawa and Zone II, with both at one percent. Other pertinent data per barangay are presented by Table EC-4.
|Barangay||Number of Households||Households Engaged in Agriculture|
|Number||Percent Share (%)|
Table EC-5 shows a summary of the water irrigation system present in the municipality. The NIA-Pula-Bansud River Irrigation System (RIS) has been operating since 1960. Since then, several rehabilitation works were taken through the Irrigation Operation Support Project (IOSP). It diverts the water through a run-off type river dam located across the Pula River in barangay Inclanay. The system currently serves 18 barangays in Pinamalayan, two in Socorro, and another two in Pola. It is also reported that the existing irrigation facilities inadequately supplies water in some areas, resulting to adverse effects in production. Thus, it is recommended that canals should be rehabilitated, as well as to concretize existing farm ditch canals. See Appendix G for the irrigation map from NIA.
|Irrigation System||Date Constructed||Type of
Type of Irrigation
Capacity of Irrigation System (m3/day)
|Pula RIS||December 15, 1960||Public||Diversion Dam and Checkgate||324,000||Inclanay|
According to GIS estimations, there is 948.60 hectares of mixed agricultural areas with irrigation canals (Maps R). This was done by overlaying the existing mixed agricultural areas against the irrigation system, with 50 meters buffer area on each side of the canals. This means that these lands can be further developed into rice production areas. The summary of areas per barangay is shown by Table EC-6. The largest area coverage is at barangay Pambisan Malaki with 157.83 hectares while the smallest area coverage is at barangay Zone I with 0.29 hectares.
|Barangay||Mixed agricultural areas with irrigation (ha)|
Households Engaged in Agriculture
Agricultural Support Facilities
Households Engaged in Livestock Raising
Existing Inland Fishing Grounds Production
Inventory of Agricultural and Fisheries Machineries and Equipment
Danny S. Villacrusis
PAgO Trains Farmers, Students Develop Climate Resilient Farms
PAgO Conducts Training on Postharvest Handling of High Value Commercial Crops
Sta. Cruz, Naujan Fisherfolks Receive Fishery Inputs from PGOrM
OrMin Rice Farmers Receive High Quality Seeds for WS Cropping
MPAs working for Biodiversity-Friendly Enterprise
Farmers Learn Climate Adaptive Soil Management Practices
PAgO Conducts Forum on Product Packaging, Labelling and Food Safety of Banana and Other Emerging Products
PAgO Conducts Training on Rice Milling Operations and Maintenance
CAPE Boosts Province’s Banner Commodities Production
PGORM-PAgO Led ICM Planning Workshop for LGU’s
PAgO Staff Undergo Training On Banana Tissue Culture Production